Aghram Nadharif. The Barkat Oasis (Sha’abiya of Ghat, Libyan Sahara) in Garamantian Times. The Archaeology of Libyan Sahara Volume II


Author: Mario Liverani (edited by)
Year of printing: 2005
ISBN: 9788878144712


The second volume of the series dedicated to environmental, archaeological and historical research in Wadi Tanezzuft, the imposing river valley west of the Tadrart Akakus mountains, presents the final publication of the investigations carried out in the fortified village of Aghram Nadharif in the Barkat oasis. The settlement had a flourishing life from about 50. BC to ca. 250 AD and offers for the first time a complete picture of a town from the Garamantic age in the classical age. In addition to the publication of the excavation and the archaeological, botanical and faunal finds found, the volume contains a series of interventions on the history of the site, the economy, the demography and the role played by the citadel in the life of the entire region.

Foreword by Savino di Lernia, comments by Peter Breunig, David J. Mattingly, contributions by Francesca Alhaique, Gilberto Artioli, Ebrahim Saleh Azzebi, Giovanna Bosi, Silvia Bruni, Fabrizio Buldrini, Roberto Castelli, Mauro Cremaschi, Emanuela Cristiani, Monica Dapiaggi, Fabrizio Felici, Luisa Forlani, Maria Carmela Gatto, Vittoria Guglielmi, Giuseppe Guida, Letizia Laddaga, Creistina Lemorini, Mario Liverani, Anna Maria Mercuri, Lucia Mori, Massimiliano Nunzi, Caterina Ottomano, Cristiano Putzolu, Giuliana Trevisan Grandi, Massimo Vidale, Giuliana Zampetti

  • Contributors
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • List of Colour Plates
  • Editorial and recording convention
  • Foreword (S. di L.)
  • Commentaries (P. B., D.J. M.)
  • Editorial Preface
  • Acknowledgements

Chapter One: Introduction (M. L.)

Part One: Context and Topography

  • Chapter Two: The Barkat Oasis in the changing landscape of the Wadi Tanezzuft during the Holocene (M. C.)
  • Chapter Three: The Garamentes in the Ghat-Barkat Area: previous research (M.C. G.);
  • Chapter Four: Cemeteries around the Barkat Oasis (R.C., M.L.)
  • Chapter Five: The topography of the site (C. P.)
  • Chapter Six: Garamantian rock art in the Acacus (D. Z.)

 Part Two: The Excavation

  • Chapter Seven: The excavation of the residential unit AN1-2-3 (M. L.)
  • Chapter Eight: The excavation of the residential unit AN20-21-22 (M.C. G.)
  • Chapter Nine: The excavation of the postern area AN26-27 (L. M.)
  • Chapter Ten: The excavation of the working area AN4-24 (L. M.)
  • Chapter Eleven: The excavation of the courtyard AN25 (L. M.)
  • Chapter Twelve: The excavation of the residential unit AN9-13 (M.L.)
  • Chapter Thirteen: The excavation of the storerooms AN5-7 and AN6 (L. M.)
  • Chapter Fourteen: The excavation of the residential unit AN8-14 (L. M.)
  • Chapter Fifteen. The excavation of the residential unit AN11-12 (M. L.)
  • Chapter Sixteen: The north-east city gate area AN16-17-18-19

Part Three: The Archaeological Materials

  • Chapter Seventeen: The local pottery (M.C. G.)
  • Chapter Eighteen: The Roman pottery (F. F.)
  • Chapter Nineteen: Archaeometry of potter: mineralogical and chemical analyses (G. A., L. L., M. D.)
  • Chapter Twenty: The ground stones tools (L. M.)
  • Chapter Twenty-One: The vesicular basalt lamps (L. M.)
  • Chapter Twenty-Two: Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectometry (CG-MS) analysis (S. B., V. G.)
  • Chapter Twenty-Three: Functional analysis of abraded heavy duty tools (C.L., E. C.)
  • Chapter Twenty-Four: Technological and functional analysis of stone, glass and faience beads (E. C.)
  • Chapter Twenty-Five: The loom weights (L. M.)
  • Chapter twenty-Six: Analytical observations on some iron finds (G. G., M. V.)
  • Chapter Twenty-Seven: A tetrarchic radiate at Aghram Nadharif (M. N.)

Part Four: Tha Paleo-Environmental Materials

  • Chapter Twenty-Eight: The archaeobotanical remains (Pollen, seeds/fruit and charcoal) (A.M. M., G. T.G., G. B., L. F., F. B.)
  • Chapter Twenty-Nine: The faunal remains (F.A.)

Part Five: History and Dating: Diachronic Interpretation of the Site

  • Chapter Thirty: Dating evidence (M. L.)
  • Chapter Thirty.One: History of the site (M. L.)

Part Six: Economy and Demography: Functional Interpretation of the Site

  • Chapter Thirty-Two:  Economy and technology (M. L.)
  • Chapter Thirty-Three: The household level analysis (M. L.)
  • Chapter Thirty-Four: The community level analysis (M.L.)
  • Chapter Thirty-Five: Demography (M. L.)

Part Seven: The Regional Setting

  • Chapter Thirty-Six: The Garamantian kingdom and its southern border (M. L.)
  • Chapter Thirty-Seven: The trans-Saharan caravan trade (M. L.)

Chapter Thirty-Eight: Overview of the Garamantian history in the Wadi Tanezzuft (M. L.)

  • Colour Plates
  • Bibliography
  • Arabic Summary

Additional information

Weight :1,866 kg
Dimensions:30,5x21,5x1,2 cm

Number and series


Place of printing


Year of printing




XXXII + 520


illustrations in black and white






English, summarized in Arabic


Preview in pdf format:
title page, index, testi
Buy on Torrossa
Buy on Google books
Buy on Google play