The Lombard question, the more general problem of the transition and transformation of means and of the organization of production between late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, are treated in this volume with particular attention to the techniques of iron manufacturing. The different blacksmith traditions of the Roman and Germanic world have been compared within the more general context of the cultural interaction between the heritage of the classical world and Barbaritas. Furthermore, through the metallurgical analyzes, carried out on two samples taken from two different swords from the Lombard necropolis of Hegyko (Hungary), a comparison was prepared with the data coming from swords produced in Italy (Lombard necropolis of Benevento - made available by Marcello Rotili in 1977) in order to evaluate the presence of any solutions of continuity between the production techniques used in Italy and those of the previous period. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the production processes of these objects and the investigation of the technical choices made, as well as the comparison with other available sources, both written and archaeological, have helped to outline the picture of the internal environment, more closely connected to history. technology of the product, as well as of the external one, that is the ethnic-social context, around which the lives of the artisans who actually produced these swords revolved.