The volume stems from the belief that XNUMXth-century architecture requires a new critical reflection and an international comparison of research perspectives. On a European scale there are developments in all building sectors: in the construction of sacred buildings, public buildings, residential structures, castles and fortified complexes. Even today there is a lack of overall synthesis works and long-range comparative research, capable of exploring the international relationships that guide the choices of clients, the circulation of models, the elaboration of projects, the mobility of workers. The reductive vision of a "late-Gothic" architecture, which inherits the great conquests of the thirteenth century and adapts them to a European context affected by a permanent state of crisis, in a climate of wars, pestilence and social revolts, does not seem correspond to the reality of a constructive commitment and an extremely complex heritage that the fourteenth century has given us. The idea of this book took shape from the need to explore the conjuncture of the century more carefully, and to compare research developments in different countries. The volume is one of the outcomes of the research projects MHP – Medieval Heritage Platform. Territory and settlements: new research and dissemination tools for heritage and Cistercian Cultural Heritage – CCH which were launched and implemented thanks to the support of the Interuniversity Department of Territorial Sciences, Projects and Policies of the Polytechnic of Turin. The result is a multidisciplinary volume, which includes more than fifty contributions, the result of different methods and approaches, but all centered on the interest for a critical rediscovery of fourteenth-century architecture in a European dimension.