The enshrinement debate is 50 years old. The castles, observed from above, appear to be a single body that was created to modify the habitat: a great revolution implemented between the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries, but this was not the case. Each castle is the result of its own dynamics and may not be related to its closest neighbor. The consolidation did not move all the forces in the field in unison and was characterized by a mosaic of motivations that often impacted on a micro-territorial scale, without being able to be rigidly pigeonholed. A common basis is evident: increase protection. The differences lie in the object that needed to be protected. A castle to defend a pass has a very different reason for being from a castle built to defend a storage site for land products (with its inhabited area). Those "reasons for being" translate into the materiality of archaeological finds, which in Europe characterize a mosaic of situations that cannot be rigidly pigeonholed, as has often been done. This volume offers examples and trend lines on the birth of castles in the Adriatic, from Istria to Puglia, the result of archaeological and topographical research that contribute to deepening the international debate on castle building through new data developed from a more transversal and less dichotomous perspective than has been postulated in the past.