On the first hills of the Emilian Apennines, in the municipality of Quattro Castella (RE), on a small hill, immersed in an oak forest, are the remains of Monte Lucio. Little was known of this fortified site. Its history was only minimally known, hidden in the shadow of the most impressive camp neighboring Monte Zane and Bianello. Fortunately, this is no longer the case today. Archaeological investigations have brought to light a newly founded castle, built in the XNUMXth century on a hillock that had not been inhabited until then. The tower, the walls and a small oratory dedicated to San Leonardo date back to the first plant. The small church in the mid-fourteenth century took on very particular cemetery functions: children and women were deposed inside, outside only adult men, the probable military garrison. What emerged makes Monte Lucio a very special case, reconstructed through the analysis of archeology (which passes through the stratigraphic excavation, thearcheologia dell’architettura, the analysis of ceramic finds up to the study of thin sections, and more) integrated with a comprehensive analysis of the available written sources and the broader contextualization of the data on a territorial scale. In this way, an important element has been added for a better understanding of the so-called "second fortification", a theme that has so far been marginal to medieval Italian archeology, but which finds in this volume a case study of great importance.