The urban reality of Tarquinia does not arise at all, as had been believed until recently, from the aggregation of several primitive villages, but from the urban evolution of a pre-existing unitary inhabited center (IX-VIII century BC), 'proto-urban', that is analogous to the future city in terms of extension, demographic consistency, breadth of the controlled territory, and certainly already the seat of political power and centralized economic functions. This center was established in the tenth century. BC with a gradual but very rapid process, the result of a radical restructuring of the pre-existing territorial structure of the Tarquinia countryside, which in turn had taken shape in the centuries. XVII-XI. In the absence of adequately edited excavations in extension, the author has succeeded in reconstructing this complex chain of processes almost exclusively on the basis of the evidence of the surface data by adopting a method of data collection perfectly suited to the purpose and managed very rigorously.