Production activities are returning to the center of interest of archaeologists because they can be used as an excellent indicator of the development or recession of ancient economies, especially if analyzed in the aspects related to the type of technology used in the production processes, to the scale of the investments made. , the quantity and quality of the objects produced, the topographical distribution of the workshops and the size of the market in which raw materials and finished objects circulate. These variables analyzed in time and space allow us to reconstruct extremely rich and unpublished socio-economic frameworks. The choice to focus on Pisa is linked to the desire to observe the transformations of the cities between the ancient and medieval ages from a privileged location, where economic macro phenomena often manifested themselves well in advance and with completely extraordinary characteristics compared to other centers. urban areas of the region. But was this exceptionality a constant in Pisan history or did it manifest itself in different forms and scales over time? Hence the need to observe economic phenomena over the long term, to identify moments of continuity and discontinuity, to mark their acceleration and deceleration times, and to understand how these same phenomena were influenced by the transformations that affected many European cities and Mediterranean between the Roman and Middle Ages.