The evolution of environmental frameworks, territorial structures and settlement systems between the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries of Romagna /Romania they are analyzed with an interdisciplinary slant by historians and archaeologists, re-reading and discussing traditional readings of historiography, adding new data and proposing new research tools. With Romagna we mean the eastern area of the current Emilia-Romagna region, while with Romania the areas in which Byzantine control persisted for the longest time in the territories of the upper and middle Adriatic, coastal and inland. The environmental picture is differentiated, between coastal strips, valley areas, medium and low plains, valleys and Apennine reliefs. Inside, cultivated lands, uncultivated areas and waters, together with different modes of exploitation, influence the unfolding of settlement systems, between city and countryside. Ravenna constitutes its privileged pole of attraction. From it, control radiates over the entire area of the Archiepiscopal Curia able to bind the elite citizens and rural classes to itself in a variegated network of relationships.