Africa encompasses a multitude of environments and biomes that require specific scientific strategies – from desktop studies to field research to laboratory analysis – to tackle research questions that may range from the emergence of early humans to the ethnoarchaeological investigation. In several areas, turmoil, social instability and security constraints hamper or limit field activities and long-term funded programs. The kidnapping of German colleagues and the tragic death of two local collaborators in Nigeria urge to rethink our agenda and challenge our view of current research practice. This 1st Workshop on “Archaeology in Africa”, organized by Sapienza University of Rome, convened several researches from Italy or Italy-based researchers. The aim was to present and discuss theoretical, methodological and financial problems for Africanist researchers today. In a global perspective, the synergy between research groups is crucial. The need to intensify the national and international cooperation is also an essential step. This book collects a selection of the different perspectives presented to the workshop, mostly focussing from North Africa and East Africa.